Tribes or Adivasi of Odisha: Livelihood and Culture

Odisha, The land of Diversity have a beautiful scenario with 62 different groups of Tribal people that are 24% of the total population. These tribes serve as the soul of the state and are the ones who have till date their culture and tradition intact. Though the Scheduled Tribes in Odisha have suffered from social, educational and economic backwardness due to geo-historical reason

These famous tribes of Odisha usually live to tell the tale on agriculture, fishing, farming, searching, and gathering all of which are characterized as a subsistence financial system. However, with the changing time, some of them made their way to the mining and industrial belts of the state. And the Other famous tribes of Odisha like Koya, Mohali, and Loharas are specialized in jobs like cattle breeding, toolmaking, and basket weaving.

Adivasi Area Of Odisha:

The Kondha or Kandha is the largest tribe of the state in terms of population and are based mainly in the Kandhamal and adjoining districts namely Rayagada, Koraput, Balangir, and Boudh.  Santals inhabit the Mayurbhanj district. The Ho people inhabit in Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar, Jajpur, Balasore, Bhadrak, Sambalpur, Jharsuguda, Sonepur, Deogarh, Dhenkanal, Anugul, Jharsuguda, Sundergarh, Kandhamal district. The Saura are found mainly in the undivided Ganjam and Puri districts. The Bonda, are known as ‘the Naked People’, live in Malkangiri district formerly part of undivided Koraput. The Kisans are the primary residents of Sundergarh, Sambalpur, and Keonjhar. They talk the Kisan dialect alongside with Odia, Hindi, and English. They are doing farming and they are well-known for their Dance and Music. Kutra Village of Sundergarh District is a major Tribal Village and the Toppo’s are the main residents of this village.

Adivasi Dance:

Every tribe has its own unique dance, music, musical instruments, decorative articles, and traditional attires. For tribal dance in Odisha, Dharua, Kisan, Oraon, Koya, Lanjia Saora, Santal, Dongaria Kandha and Lodha tribes are highly noticeable.

Jhumar, Dhemsa, paramparika Mukha Nrutya, Jangu dance, Saora dance are famous dance form of the tribes

Odisha Adivasi Mela:

Odisha Adivasi Mela is the fair where all tribes represent themselves and their livelihood, and Adivasi Mela was observed in the month of January in Evey year.

Tribes list of Odisha:

1. Bagata, Bhakta

2. Baiga

3. Banjara, Banjari

4. Bathudi, Bathuri

5. Bhottada, Dhotada, Bhotra, Bhatra, Bhattara, Bhotora, Bhatara

6. Bhuiya, Bhuyan

7. Bhumia

8. Bhumij, Teli Bhumij, Haladipokhria Bhumij, HaladiPokharia Bhumija, Desi Bhumij, Desia

Bhumij, Tamaria Bhumij

9. Bhunjia

10. Binjhal, Binjhwar

11. Binjhia, Binjhoa

12. Birhor

13. Bondo Poraja, Bonda Paroja, Banda Paroja

14. Chenchu

15. Dal

16. Desua Bhumij

17. Dharua, Dhuruba, Dhuruva

18. Didayi, Didai Paroja, Didai

19. Gadaba, Bodo Gadaba, Gutob Gadaba, Kapu Gadaba, Ollara Gadaba, Parenga Gadaba,

Sano Gadaba

20. Gandia

21. Ghara

22. Gond, Gondo, Rajgond, Maria Gond, Dhur Gond

23. Ho

24. Holva

25. Jatapu

26. Juang

27. Kandha Gauda

28. Kawar, Kanwar

29. Kharian, Kharia, Berga Kharia, Dudh Kharia, Erenga Kharia, Dhelki Kharia, Dudh Kharia, Erenga Kharia, Munda Kharia,

Oraon Kharia, Khandia, Pahari Kharia

30. Kharwar

31.Khond, Kandha,Kond, Nanguli Kandha, Sitha Kandha, Desia Kandha, Dungaria Kondh, Kutia Kandha Kondh, Kui, Buda Kondh, BuraKandha, , Kandha Gauda, Muli Kondh,

Malua Kondh, Pengo Kandha, Raja Kondh, Raj Kondh

32. Kisan, Nagesar, Nagesia

33. Kol

34. Kolah Loharas, Kol Loharas

35. Kolha

36. Koli, Malhar

37. Kondadora

38. Kora, Khaira, Khayara

39. Korua

40. Kotia

41. Koya, Gumba Koya, Koitur Koya, Kamar Koya, Musara Koya

42. Kulis

43. Lodha, Nodha, Nodh,  Lodh

44. Madia

45. Mahali

46. Mankidi

47. Mankirdia, Mankria, Mankidi

48. Matya, Matia

49. Mirdhas, Kuda, Koda

50. Munda, Munda Lohara, Munda Mahalis, Nagabanshi Munda, Oriya Munda

51. Mundari

52. Omanatya, Omanatyo, Amanatya

53. Oraon, Dhangar, Uran

54. Parenga

55. Paroja, Parja, Bodo Paroja, Barong Jhodia Paroja, Chhelia Paroja, Jhodia Paroja, Konda

Paroja, Paraja, Ponga Paroja, Sodia Paroja, Sano Paroja, Solia Paroja

56. Pentia

57. Rajuar

58. Santal

59.Saora, Savar, Saura, Sahara, Arsi Saora, Based Saora, Bhima Saora, Bhimma Saora, Chumura Saora, Jara Savar, Jadu Saora, Jati Saora, Juari Saora, Kampu Saora, Kampa soura, Kapo Saora, Kindal Saora, Kumbi Kancher Saora, Kalapithia Saora, Kirat Saora, Lanjia Saora, Lamba Lanjia Saora, Luara Saora, Laria Savar, Malia Saora, Malla Saora, Uriya Saora, Raika Saora, Sudda Saora, Sarda Saora, Tankala Saora, Patro Saora, Vesu Saora.

60. Shabar, Lodha

61. Sounti

62. Tharua, Tharua Bindhani